Early years in machine translation

Memoirs and biographies of pioneers


Edited by W. John Hutchins


Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2000

[Studies in the History of the Language Sciences, vol.97]

ISBN: 90 272 4586; 1 55619 013 3

[For copyright reasons, the contents of this volume are not available online; contact the publisher]


Table of contents


Preface                                                                                                                                                                                                                                vii

Common abbreviations                                                                                                                                                                                                     x

Acknowledgements, Cyrillic transliteration                                                                                                                                                                   xi

The first decades of machine translation: overview, chronology, sources – John Hutchins                                                                                 1

Warren Weaver and the launching of MT: brief biographical note – John Hutchins [PDF]                                                                               17

Erwin Reifler and machine translation at the University of Washington – Lew R. Micklesen                                                                            21

Early research at M.I.T.: in search of adequate theory – Victor H. Yngve                                                                                                            39

Machine translation at Harvard – Anthony G. Oettinger                                                                                                                                          73

The Georgetown project and Leon Dostert: recollections of a young assistant – Muriel Vasconcellos                                                            87

Is FAHQ(M)T possible? Memories of Paul L. Garvin and other MT colleagues – Christine A. Montgomery                                                  97

The early days of GAT-SLC – Michael Zarechnak                                                                                                                                                    111

Machine translation: just a question of finding the right programming language? – Antony F. R. Brown                                                      129

From Serna to Systran – Peter Toma                                                                                                                                                                            135

My early years in machine translation – Winfred P. Lehmann                                                                                                                                147

David G. Hays – Martin Kay                                                                                                                                                                                           165

Gilbert W. King and the USAF Translator – John Hutchins [PDF]                                                                                                                          171

Translation and the structure of language – Sydney M. Lamb                                                                                                                                177

Pioneering MT in the Soviet Union – Olga S. Kulagina                                                                                                                                             197

Machine translation and formal linguistics in the USSR – Igor A. Mel’čuk                                                                                                           205

My memoirs of MT in the Soviet Union – Tat’jana N. Mološnaja                                                                                                                           227

MT in the former USSR and in the Newly Independent States (NIS): pre-history, Romantic era, prosaic time – Raimund G. Piotrovskij   233

Machine translation: early years in the USSR – Jurij N. Marčuk                                                                                                                             243

The beginnings of MT – Andrew D. Booth and Kathleen H. V. Booth                                                                                                                   253

R. H. Richens: translation in the NUDE – Karen Sparck-Jones                                                                                                                                263

Margaret Masterman – Yorick Wilks                                                                                                                                                                            279

Yehoshua Bar-Hillel: a philosopher’s contribution to machine translation – John Hutchins      [PDF]                                                             299

Silvio Ceccato and the correlational grammar – Ernst von Glasersfeld                                                                                                                   313

Early MT in France – Maurice Gross                                                                                                                                                                             325

Bernard Vauquois’ contribution to the theory and practice of building MT systems: a historical perspective – Christian Boitet              331

Pioneer work in machine translation in Czechoslovakia – Zdeněk Kirschner                                                                                                       349

Alexander Ljudskanov – Elena Paskaleva                                                                                                                                                                  361

Memoirs of a survivor – Hiroshi Wada                                                                                                                                                                       377

Index of names                                                                                                                                                                                                                 387

Index of subjects                                                                                                                                                                                                              394


Location of photographs

       Participants at US conferences                                                                                                                                                                                 xii

       Weaver, Reifler, Yngve, Oettinger                                                                                                                                                                            16

       Dostert, Garvin, Zarechnak, Toma                                                                                                                                                                           146

       Brown, Lehmann, lamb                                                                                                                                                                                              196

       Participants at USSR conference; Mel’čuk, Mološnaja, Reformatskij                                                                                                               232

       Marčuk, Piotrowski, Booth                                                                                                                                                                                       252

       Richens, Masterman, Ceccato                                                                                                                                                                                 298

       Sgall, Wada, Vauquois                                                                                                                                                                                              386