Main publications on machine translation

since 1999



Compendium of translation software: directory of commercial machine translation systems and computer-based translation support tools. [Geneva]: European Association for Machine Translation.

Machine Translation Archive: electronic repository and bibliography of articles, books and papers on topics in machine translation and computer-based translation tools.


General surveys

Multiple uses of machine translation and computerized translation tools. ISMTCL: International Symposium on Data Mining and Sense Mining, Machine Translation and Controlled Languages, and their application to emergencies and safety critical domains, July 1-3, 2009, Centre Tesnière, University of Franche-Comté, Besançon, France (Presses universitaires de Franche-Comté, 2009); pp. 13-20. [PDF, 66KB]

Current commercial machine translation systems and computer-based translation tools: system types and their uses. International Journal of Translation vol.17, no.1-2, Jan-Dec 2005, pp.5-38. [PDF, 191KB]

Machine translation and computer-based translation tools. A new spectrum of translation studies, ed. José Maria Bravo (Valladolid: University of Valladolid, 2004), 13-48.  [PDF, 186KB]

Commercial systems: the state of the art. Computers and translation: a translator’s guide, ed. Harold Somers. (Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2003), 161-174.  [PDF, 123KB]

Machine translation today and tomorrow. Computerlinguistik: was geht, was kommt? Computational linguistics: achievements and perspectives. Festschrift für Winfried Lenders; hrsg. Gerd Willée, Bernhard Schröder, Hans-Christian Schmitz (Sankt Augustin: Gardez! Verlag, 2002), 159-162. (Sprachwissensschaft, Computerlinguistik und Neue Medien, Bd.4). [PDF, 81KB]

The development and use of machine translation systems and computer-based translation tools. International Conference on Machine Translation & Computer Language Information Processing, 26-28 June 1999, Beijing, China. Proceedings of the conference, editor: Chen Zhaoxiong, 1-16. [Beijing: Research Center of Computer & Language Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences.] Reprinted in: International Journal of Translation, vol.15, no.1, Jan-June 2003, pp.5-26.  [PDF, 165KB]


Special aspects

(with Federico Garspari) Online and free! Ten years of online machine translation: origins, developments, current use and future prospects. MT Summit XI, Copenhagen, Denmark, 10-14 September 2007, Proceedings; pp.199-206. [PDF, 128KB]; PPT presentation [PDF, 149KB]

Example-based machine translation: a review and commentary. Machine Translation vol.19, 2005, 197-211. [A review of: Recent advances in example-based machine translation, ed. Michael Carl and Andy Way (Dordrecht: Kluwer, 2003)] [PDF, 184KB]

Towards a definition of example-based machine translation.  In: MT Summit X, Phuket, Thailand: Proceedings of Workshop on Example-Based Machine Translation, September 16, 2005; pp.63-70.  [PDF, 170KB]

Towards a new vision for MT. Introductory speech at MT Summit VIII, Santiago de Compostela, 19 September 2001. [PDF, 106KB]

Machine translation and human translation: in competition or in complementation? International Journal of Translation, vol.13, no.1-2, Jan-Dec 2001, pp. 5-20. Special theme issue on machine translation, [editor] Michael S. Blekhman. Also: Machine translation theory & practice, edited by Michael S. Blekhman. New Delhi: Bahri Publications, 2001. (BP Series in Translation Studies – 8).  [PDF, 113KB]

Retrospect and prospect in computer-based translation. In Machine Translation Summit VII, 13th-17th September 1999, Kent Ridge Digital Labs, Singapore. Proceedings of MT Summit VII "MT in the great translation era", 30-34. [Tokyo]: Asia-Pacific Association for Machine Translation, 1999.  [PDF, 127KB]

Historical works

                General history

History of MT in a nutshell. A two-page sketch, from the beginnings to the present. [Written 2000-2001, revised November 2005]

Machine translation: history of research and use. In: Encyclopedia of Languages and Linguistics. 2nd edition, edited by Keith Brown (Oxford: Elsevier 2006), vol.7, pp.375-383. [PDF, 445KB]

Machine translation: general overview. In: Mitkov, Ruslan (ed.) The Oxford Handbook of Computational Linguistics. (Oxford: University Press, 2003), 501-511. [PDF, 134KB]

Machine translation over fifty years. Histoire, Epistémologie, Langage. Vol. 23 (1), 2001: Le traitement automatique des langues [ed. Jacqueline Léon], 7-31.  [PDF, 160KB]

                Special aspects

Has machine translation improved? some historical comparisons MT Summit IX: proceedings of the Ninth Machine Translation Summit, New Orleans, USA, September 23-27, 2003. [East Stroudsburg, PA: AMTA], p. 181-188.  [PDF, 191KB]

An expanded version [PDF, 288KB] illustrates further aspects, and a database gives longer examples of MT texts from the past, with comparative output from some current systems.

Special periods

The first public demonstration of machine translation: the Georgetown-IBM system, 7th January 1954. [Expanded version of AMTA-2004 paper. Written November 2005] [PDF, 1773KB]

The Georgetown-IBM experiment demonstrated in January 1954. Machine translation: from real users to research: 6th conference of the Association for Machine Translation in the Americas, AMTA 2004, Washington, DC, USA, September 28 - October 2, 2004. Proceedings, ed. Robert E.Frederking and Kathryn B.Taylor (Berlin:Springer, 2004), 102-114.  [PDF, 168KB]

                Historical personages

Two precursors of machine translation: Artsrouni and Trojanskij. International Journal of Translation 16(1) Jan-June 2004, 11-31. [PDF, 289KB]

Gilbert W. King and the USAF Translator. In: Hutchins, W.John (ed.) Early years in machine translation (Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2000), p.171-176. [PDF, 132KB]

Yehoshua Bar-Hillel: a philosopher’s contribution to machine translation. In: Hutchins, W.John (ed.) Early years in machine translation (Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2000), p.299-312. [PDF, 183KB]

Warren Weaver and the launching of MT: brief biographical note. In: Hutchins, W.John (ed.) Early years in machine translation (Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2000), p.17-20. [PDF, 113KB]

 (with Evgeny Lovtskii) Petr Petrovich Troyanskii (1894-1950): a forgotten pioneer of mechanical translation. Machine Translation 15 (3), 2000, 187-221.  [PDF, 279KB]